First you need a pond or tub & a pump, cleaning kit, test kit, food, water, than the fish.
pumps: a medium flow pump will do up to a 2,000 gallons. A high flow will go up to a 5,000.
filters: Biological Filters These filters are the most critical type of filter needed for creating healthy water conditions in your pond. Mechanical Filters
Trap larger particles before they enter your pump and/or biological filter, thereby enhancing their efficiency. Chemical Filters Optional units that allow an efficient chemical means of filtering water. Use in conjunction with a properly-sized bio-filter.
Conditioners & Bacteria: Amquel Chlorine Remover AmQuel protects pond fish & invertebrates by quickly neutralizing the toxic ammonia, chloramines, and chlorine from tap water. Kordon New Pond Prep All in one water conditioner and fish protector for new pond setups and newly cleaned ponds.Microbe-Lift Nitrifying Bacteria Add to biological filters in new ponds to promote establishment of bacterial colonies (increases filter efficiency).
Pond Water Test Kits: Monitoring water quality is a critical responsibilty for those that keep koi & fish in their ponds.
A total of ten tests of each of the following.
< ammonia (NH4)
< nitrite (NO2)
< nitrate (NO3)
Fish Supplies: Everything from premium Hikari koi food to more economical feeds from Tetra.
Thermometers: Monitor the temperature of your pond water to determine fish feeding rate.
Fish Nets : Move your pond fish from pond to holding tank with minimal stress.
||It is difficult to tell the sex on younger Koi, it gets easier as they get older.|
||Females tend to have rounder bodies and rounder pectoral fins and their fins tend to be somewhat smaller.|
||Males are sleeker, with more pointed pectoral fins, and their fins tend to be larger.|
||Others claim the colors of males are more brilliant.|
||Older males have a sand paper like raspiness on the gill plates, and some claim you can also feel a roughness if you lick your tongue across the front of the pectoral fin. If you try this let us know!|
The easiest way is when there is a particularly aggressive male chasing the females, with the proverbial nose up the butt, you look for other males chasing the same now identified females.
PH: Each species of fish has its own very narrow range of pH preference and levels outside of this range will cause health problems. For example, koi prefer a range between 7 and 8.5, while some tropical fish prefer water that is slightly acidic. There are several ways that pH can affect fish health. High acidity or alkalinity can cause direct physical damage to skin, gills and eyes. Prolonged exposure to sub-lethal pH levels can cause stress, increase mucus production and encourage epithelial hyperplasia (thickening of the skin or gill epithelia) with sometimes-fatal consequences.
breeding: If you are interested in breeding koi, you need to have the koi larger than 25cm or else it is biologically impossible because the ovaries and testes in the male and female have not fully developed making them sexually imature. Anywhere after 25cm in length you can start to breed the koi fish. To pair the fish you should have 2 males to 1 female as the ratio. Koi will only start breeding in the mid spring through summer. After you see the koi chase eachother this means they are probably going to mate. A female will then look for a place to put her eggs. This is the time to lower in some nylon ropes which have been frayed at the end. These nylon breeding ropes are a great source for the female to lay her eggs because there is so much surface area for the eggs to attach. Once you see the eggs on the ropes you should remove them into a vat or an incubator before the koi eat their own eggs. Now you have to raise the fry.